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Raspberry 4 with SSD to Ubuntu server and Webmin control panel ENG

In this note, I will tell you how to make a cool home server out of your raspberry 4. To do this, you must already have:

  1. Raspberry 4
  2. SSD disk — it is not required, you can do it all with an sd card, but this is very unfortunate, because the drive plays a key role in the server
  3. SD Card
  4. Static IP

Here is my raspberry 4, I bought more UPS and WiFi socket, in case the server freezes:

1. I used the build and installation method from here https://jamesachambers.com/raspberry-pi-4-ubuntu-server-desktop-18-04-3-image-unofficial/. I will post only a brief instruction, all the information in more detail you will find in the author.

Using a solid state on the Ubuntu image is incredibly easy (even easier than Raspbian). Here’s the instructions:

  • Download the Server image https://github.com/TheRemote/Ubuntu-Server-raspi4-unofficial/releases above and write it to your SD card with https://www.balena.io/etcher/ or another
  • Navigate to the /boot drive on your SD card and open cmdline.txt
  • Change the part of the line that says root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 to root=/dev/sda2
  • Now burn the image again to your SSD
  • Plug in both the SSD and Micro SD and boot up the Pi

access the server

  • Username: ubuntu
  • Password: ubuntu

2. Now I will describe configuring the server using the webmin panel on nginx:

timezone server

sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

First and foremost 99% of your updates will be coming from Ubuntu’s official repositories directly from apt as it would with any official image. The only things set on package hold (using apt-mark hold flash-kernel linux-raspi2 linux-image-raspi2 linux-headers-raspi2 linux-firmware-raspi2) to prevent them from overwriting the firmware already on the image. If you wish, you may apt-mark unhold those same packages and you will be 100% official Ubuntu. Your installation will probably immediately break if you do it now, but when the RPI 4 support is backported this is how you can change back to theirs.

sudo apt-mark hold flash-kernel linux-raspi2 linux-image-raspi2 linux-headers-raspi2 linux-firmware-raspi2

now you can

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

swap

free -h
sudo fallocate -l 8G /swapfile
sudo ls -lh /swapfile
sudo chmod 600 /swapfile
sudo mkswap /swapfile
sudo swapon /swapfile
sudo swapon --show
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak
echo '/swapfile none swap sw 0 0' | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
free -h

Change the settings for paging The swappiness parameter determines how often the system loads data from RAM to swap space. Its value is expressed as a number from 0 to 100 percent. When values are close to 100, the system will try to upload more data to the swap to unload RAM. Depending on the application memory profile and the tasks assigned to the server, in some cases this is a plus. We can see the current value of the swappiness factor by entering the following:

cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness
sudo sysctl vm.swappiness=10
sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
add down vm.swappiness=10

Change settings-load the cache, defaults to 100 Another important option is vfs_cache_pressure. It controls the tendency of the kernel to reclaim the memory which is used for caching of directory and inode objects. Basically, this is file system access data. As a rule, it is not so easy to find them, and they are requested often, so it is very convenient to use cache memory in this case. To find out the current value of this parameter, you can request the proc file system:

cat /proc/sys/vm/vfs_cache_pressure
sudo sysctl vm.vfs_cache_pressure=50
sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
add down vm.vfs_cache_pressure=50

use root to ssh

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    PermitRootLogin yes
sudo systemctl restart ssh || systemctl restart sshd

Now install Webmin

sudo apt-get install perl libnet-ssleay-perl openssl libauthen-pam-perl libpam-runtime libio-pty-perl apt-show-versions python
wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/webmin_1.941_all.deb
sudo dpkg --install webmin_1.941_all.deb
  
wget -q http://www.webmin.com/jcameron-key.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=arm64] http://download.webmin.com/download/repository sarge contrib"
  
sudo nano /etc/webmin/miniserv.conf
     ssl=0
sudo reboot

Open you control panel http://192.168.1.X:10000/ and install

  1. Fail2Ban
  2. Postfix
echo 'virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual' | sudo tee -a /etc/postfix/main.cf
echo 'home_mailbox = Maildir/' | sudo tee -a /etc/postfix/main.cf

sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix
  General type of mail configuration?: Internet Site
  System mail name: example.com (not mail.example.com)
  Root and postmaster mail recipient: sammy
  Other destinations to accept mail for: $myhostname, example.com, mail.example.com, localhost.example.com, localhost
  Force synchronous updates on mail queue?: No
  Local networks: 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128
  Mailbox size limit: 0
  Local address extension character: +
  Internet protocols to use: all
  
sudo nano /etc/mailname
MYDOAINNAME.COM
  1. Mysql
  2. Ngnix
/etc/init.d/apache2 stop
update-rc.d apache2 remove
sudo apt-get install nginx
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
  1. php
  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/nginx
  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
  sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
  sudo apt install php-fpm php-mysql
  sudo apt install memcached libmemcached-tools
  sudo apt install php7.4 php7.4-cgi php7.4-mysql php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-imap php7.4-tidy php7.4-xmlrpc php7.4-xsl php7.4-mbstring php7.4-zip php7.4-cli php7.4-fpm memcached php7.4-curl php7.4-xml php-common php7.4-common php7.4-json php7.4-opcache php7.4-readline php7.4-bcmath
  sudo apt install php-apcu php-memcached php-imagick
  sudo service php7.4-fpm status
  sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
            # pass PHP scripts to FastCGI server
            #
            location ~ \.php$ {
                    include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
    
                    # With php-fpm (or other unix sockets):
                    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
                    # With php-cgi (or other tcp sockets):
            #       fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
            }
 sudo service nginx reload

Install virtual min and usermin

  wget http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/webadmin/usermin_1.791_all.deb
  sudo apt-get install perl libnet-ssleay-perl openssl libauthen-pam-perl libpam-runtime libio-pty-perl
  sudo dpkg --install usermin_1.791_all.deb
  1. download https://download.webmin.com/download/virtualmin/virtual-server-6.08.gpl.wbm.gz
  2. irtualmin in Webmin Configuration> Webmin Modules, you should select the option «Grant access to all Webmin users install via the Webmin config > modules admin panel
  3. reboot
  sudo nano /etc/usermin/miniserv.conf
    ssl=0
  sudo reboot

install nginx in control panel

  git clone https://github.com/Real-Gecko/virtualmin-nginx-fpm.git
  tar -zcf virtualmin-nginx-fpm.tar.gz virtualmin-nginx-fpm

Virtualmin in Webmin Configuration> Webmin Modules, you should select the option «Grant access to all Webmin users install via the admin panel install via the admin panel virtualmin-nginx-fpm.tar.gz

  /etc/init.d/php7.4-fpm start
  sudo systemctl restart nginx

Now you can create users and their sites. I use cloudflare as an NS server. I delegate the domain to cloudflare and already specify the server’s IP address in cloudflare.

Занимаюсь сайтами с 2005 года, начинал еще с narod.ru и ucoz :-)

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